Biological Resource Center, NITE (NBRC)

Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T (= NBRC 100505T)

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Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T (= NBRC 100505) was isolated as a slow growing bacterium from an anaerobic-aerobic sequential batch reactor operated under enhanced biological phosphorous removal (EBPR) conditions for wastewater treatment [1]. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the isolate was phylogenetically distant from any known bacterial species. This led to the proposal, for the first time in Japan, of a new valid phylum, Gemmatimonadetes. Members of the phylum Gemmatimonadetes are frequently found by culture-independent surveys in various environments, such as soils [2] and sponges [3], but only a few isolates were reported to date [4]. Physiological and metabolic features of microbes belonging to this phylum were therefore hardly characterized.

Genome analysis of G. aurantiaca T-27T revealed a circular chromosome consisting of 4,636,964 bp with 64.28% G+C content. 3,935 open reading frames, 48 tRNA genes and single rRNA operon were predicted. Many of the essential genes identified in model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were also found in G. aurantiaca T-27T genome, suggesting that basic cellular systems were not much different from other microbes. Pathway reconstruction suggested thatG. aurantiaca T-27T could grow both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, being consistent with the operating conditions of the anaerobic-aerobic sequential batch reacter which this bacterium was isolated from. Furthermore, G. auratiaca T-27T genome encoded significantly large numbers of signal transduction components, sigma factors and transporters. These genomic features would provide an insight into the life style of G. aurantiaca, and facilitate isolation of not-yet-cultivated Gemmatimonadetes species.

Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T photo
Courtesy of
Dr. Hanada in Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)

References:

[1] Gemmatimonas aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov.
Zhang, H., Sekiguchi, Y., Hanada, S., Hugenholtz, P., Kim, H., Kamagata, Y. and Nakamura, K. (2003)
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:1155-1163. [PMID:12892144]
[2] Laboratory cultivation of widespread and previously uncultured soil bacteria.
Joseph, S. J., Hugenholtz, P., Sangwan, P., Osborne, C. A. and Janssen, P. H. (2003)
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:7210-7215. [PMID:14660368]
[3] Vertical transmission of a phylogenetically complex microbial consortium in the viviparous sponge Ircinia felix.
Schmitt, S., Weisz, J. B., Lindquist, N. and Hentschel, U. (2007)
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:2067-2078. [PMID:17277226]
[4] Effects of growth medium, inoculum size, and incubation time on culturability and isolation of soil bacteria.
Davis, K. E., Joseph, S. J. and Janssen, P. H. (2005)
Appl. Environ. Microbiol 71:826-834. [PMID:15691937]
Genomic size: 4,636,964 bp
The number of ORFs: 3,935
GC content: 64.3%
Genome Database: DOGAN
NBRC* No. : 100505
*:
NBRC is the acronym for "the NITE Biological Resource Center".
The URL of NBRC is http://www.nbrc.nite.go.jp/e/index.html.
Distribution of Our Microbial Genomic DNAs
At the Biological Resource Center of the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE Biological Resource Center, an Incorporated Administrative Agency), we have been distributing the microbial genomic DNA.

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